Achievements have been introduced in the beta versions of 1.0.27 (mc 1.7.10) this list may be incomplete since more achievements could have been added since.

Name Description How to Get It Meaning
Sororicide Face the fire and live. Get shot with an immolator plasma beam while holding the Lil'Pipsqueak, a geiger counter and a bottle of S~Cola. Doing so will not damage the player and grant the achievement along with regeneration 7 for three seconds. Sororicide describes the act of killing one's sister, it's unknown what this has to do with this exact achievement. In the code this achievement is refered to as achSacrifice.
Literally Impossible You can't get this achievement This achievement has no trigger. unknown
The Taste of Blood is not part of any testing protocol. This achievement has no trigger. May be a reference to the Portal game series.
Rogue AI You stabbed me! What is WRONG with yo-WOOOAAH Upgrade a potato battery to PotatOS. Reference to the game Portal 2.
XVIII The Moon Yeah. Craft either a B92 laser weapon or a radial engine piston. The Moon may reference the fact that in the game files, the radial engine is known as machine_selenium, and selene is the greek word for moon. The name also refers to a tarot card of the same name.
Chapter 44 Galvanized! I mean, zinc! Craft the Lil'Pipsqueak. unknown
Chapter [TWENTY POINT FIVE] ??? This achievement has no trigger. unknown
Freytag Herold's life guards Craft an MP40. unknown
The Final Front-ah forget it Fail in every way possible and waste funds worth 90 million dollars. Shoot a painting of a cartoon pony into orbit using the HTR-01 carrier rocket. unknown
Pegasi and Missile Silos Send a relay into martian...I mean dunaian orbit. Send the PEAF - FOEQ relay satellite into orbit using the HTR-01 carrier rocket. Pegasi is the plural of pegasus, dunaian orbit refers to the planet of Duna, a mars equivalent in the game Kerbal Space Program. The craft itself is also modeled after KSP stock parts.